"Reference Model: A framework for understanding significant relationships among the entities of some environment, and for the development of consistent standards or specifications supporting that environment. A reference model is based on a small number of unifying concepts and may be used as a basis for education and explaining standards to a non-specialist." (Reference Model for an Open Archival Information System (OAIS) http://ssdoo.gsfc.nasa.gov/nost/wwwclassic/documents/pdf/CCSDS-650.0-B-1.pdf)
"A Reference Model identifies a common learning, teaching, research or business requirement and shows how one or more Services can be used to meet this need. A Reference Model also provides cross-links to the Services that it uses in the Service part of the e-Framework. The development of Reference Models is seen as a community based process, involving domain experts and practitioners in analysing existing good practices and problem areas, and in designing the information and process models on which they are based."
(The e-Framework for Education and Research: An Overview, A Paper prepared on behalf of DEST (Australia), JISC-CETIS (UK). Version R1, July 2005, p 6)
"A Reference Model should provide:
- An abstract task model of what has to be accomplished to meet the needs addressed, described in a way that is independent of how it is accomplished
- The description of the chosen means of implementing this model, including:
- The roles and activities that humans and computer systems are respectively to play in accomplishing this task.
- The workflow or processes involved.
- The use cases involved at one or more points in the process that form part of the computer system requirements at each point.
- From the use cases are derived:
- a specification of the service or services called on, together with links to the specifications and bindings used; and
- a specification of how the various services are co-ordinated in those cases where they have to work together."
(The e-Framework for Education and Research: An Overview, A Paper prepared on behalf of DEST (Australia), JISC-CETIS (UK). Version R1, July 2005, p 8)
Links and further information
Olivier, Bill, Roberts, Tish and Blinco, Kerry. The e-Framework for Education and Research: An Overview, A Paper prepared on behalf of DEST (Australia), JISC-CETIS (UK). Version R1, July 2005 (http://www.e-framework.org/resources/eframeworkrV1.pdf)
Examples of reference models include:
- JISC IE Discovery to Delivery (D2D) Reference Model (http://www.ukoln.ac.uk/distributed-systems/jisc-ie/arch/dlf/)
- Draft for discussion, by Andy Powell
- see also, Powell, Andy. The "discovery to delivery" business requirement in the DLF Service Framework. Presentation to the repositories working group of the JISC-CETIS Conference 2006, available from the conference web site (http://www.e-framework.org/events/conference/programme/repositories/)
- JISC reference models projects (http://www.elearning.ac.uk/del/refmodels)
- See Dan Rehak's presentation at the JISC-CETIS Conference for further examples: http://www.e-framework.org/events/conference/programme