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  1. The JISC Information Environment
  2. Metadata Standards
  3. Metadata Application Profiles
  4. Metadata Schema Registries

The JISC Information Environment

JISC Information Environment
A set of networked services that allows people to discover, access, use and publish a wide variety of heterogeneous resources (bibliographic, full-text, image, video, geo-spatial, datasets, etc.) within the UK HE and FE community.

JISC Information Environment Technical Architecture
A specification of the standards and protocols that provide interoperability within this network of services.

Shared Services
A set of structured network services that provide functions of common interest to other service components within the Information Environment. The JISC IE Metadata Service Registry is a shared service.

Metadata Standards

Resource descriptions exchanged between services in the JISC IE are based on two metadata standards: the Dublin Core Metadata Element Set and the IEEE Learning Object Metadata standard.

Dublin Core Metadata Element Set

The Dublin Core Metadata Initiative

Andy Powell, Mikael Nilsson, Ambjörn Naeve, & Pete Johnston. DCMI Abstract Model, DCMI Recommendation
An abstract model for DCMI metadata descriptions. The primary purpose of this document is to provide a reference model against which particular DC encoding guidelines can be compared.

Dublin Core Metadata Element Set, Version 1.1: Reference Description
The Dublin Core metadata element set is a standard for cross-domain information resource description. Here an information resource is defined to be "anything that has identity". There are no fundamental restrictions to the types of resources to which Dublin Core metadata can be assigned.

DCMI Metadata Terms
An up-to-date, authoritative specification of all metadata terms maintained by the Dublin Core Metadata Initiative -- elements, element refinements, encoding schemes, and vocabulary terms (the DCMI Type Vocabulary).

Dave Beckett, Eric Miller and Dan Brickley. Expressing Simple Dublin Core in RDF/XML. DCMI Recommendation.
This document explains how to encode the DCMES in RDF/XML, provides a DTD to validate the documents and describes a method to link them from web pages.

Stefan Kokkelink and Roland Schwänzl. Expressing Qualified Dublin Core in RDF/XML. DCMI Proposed Recommendation.
This document describes how qualified Dublin Core metadata can be encoded in RDF / XML and gives practical examples.

Andy Powell and Pete Johnston. Guidelines for implementing Dublin Core in XML. DCMI Recommendation.
This document provides guidelines for people implementing Dublin Core metadata applications using XML.

IEEE Learning Object Metadata

IEEE Learning Technology Standards Committee (LTSC) Working Group 12

1484.12.1 - 2002 Learning Object Metadata (LOM)
A conceptual data schema that defines the structure of a metadata instance for a learning object. For this Standard, a learning object is defined as any entity -digital or non-digital- that may be used for learning, education or training.
Final Draft of standard:

PAR 1484.12.3 - Standard for XML binding for Learning Object Metadata data model
The purpose of this standard is to provide the XML binding to enable the exchange of LOM instances between conforming systems that implement the 1484.12.1 data model.
April 2004 Draft:

PAR 1484.12.4 - Standard for Resource Description Framework (RDF) binding for Learning Object Metadata data model
The purpose of this standard is to provide the RDF binding to enable the exchange of LOM instances between conforming systems that implement the 1484.12.1 data model.

Mikael Nilsson. RDF binding of LOM metadata

Mikael Nilsson, Matthias Palmér and Jan Brase. "The LOM RDF binding - principles and implementation". Paper to 3rd Annual Ariadne Conference, 20-21 November 2003, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Belgium (November 2003)
Discussion of the advantages and complexities in using the Resource Description Framework, RDF, to express learning object metadata following the IEEE LOM standard.

Metadata Application Profiles

Profiles and Profiling

Z39.50 International Standard Maintenance Agency, Z39.50 Profiles: About Profiles, (January 1998)
An exploration of the term "profile", with particular reference to implementation of the Z39.50 Information Retrieval protocol.

Application Profiles for Metadata Standards

Rachel Heery & Manjula Patel, "Application Profiles: mixing and matching metadata schemas". Ariadne, 25 (September 2000)
An introduction to how the idea of the "application profile" might be applied to the implementation of metadata standards.

Makx Dekkers, "Application Profiles, or how to mix and match metadata schemas". Cultivate Interactive, Issue 3 (January 2001)
An introduction to research on the concept of the application profile from the perspective of the SCHEMAS project.

Thomas Baker, Makx Dekkers, Rachel Heery, Manjula Patel, and Gauri Salokhe, "What Terms Does Your Metadata Use? Application Profiles as Machine-Understandable Narratives". Journal of Digital Information, Volume 2 Issue 2 (November 2001)
An account of the SCHEMAS Registry and its efforts to provide a selected and annotated overview of metadata vocabularies and their use in application environments.

Erik Duval, Wayne Hodgins, Stuart Sutton & Stuart L. Weibel, "Metadata Principles and Practicalities". D-Lib, Vol 8 No 4 (April 2002)
An exploration of the common understandings of metadata issues shared by the DC and LOM communities.

Dublin Core Application Profiles

CEN Workshop Agreement CWA 14855:2003(E). Dublin Core Application Profile Guidelines
Guidelines for describing a Dublin Core Application Profile in the form of a human-readable document.

Rebecca Guenther. DC Library Application Profile
A possible application profile that clarifies the use of the Dublin Core Metadata Element Set in libraries and library-related applications and projects.

Office of the e-Envoy, Cabinet Office, UK. UK e-Government Metadata Standard Application Profile Version 1
The elements and refinements that provide the structure for metadata used by the UK public sector.

LOM Application Profiles

Norm Friesen, Jon Mason and Nigel Ward. "Building Educational Metadata Application Profiles". Proceedings of the International Conference on Dublin Core and Metadata for e-Communities 2002, pp 63-69
An overview of metadata implementations for managing and distributing Learning Objects and the practical issues that emerged.

Norm Friesen. Survey of Learning Object Metadata Implementations (Last updated: August 29, 2002)
This document lists forms in which the IMS/IEEE Learning Object Metadata (LOM) specification is being implemented internationally.

Erik Duval & Wayne Hodgins. "A LOM Research Agenda". WWW2003 - Twelfth International World Wide Web Conference, 20-24 May 2003, Budapest, Hungary
This paper elaborates on what the authors consider important issues for research on learning objects and their use in education and training. The paper focuses on metadata related issues, and includes a discussion of LOM extensibility and application profiles.

UK Learning Object Metadata Core, Draft 0.1
An application profile of the IEEE LOM that has been optimised for use within the context of UK education. A set of guidelines has been drafted to inform UK practitioners on the implementation of a minimum common core of LOM elements and associated vocabularies.

RDN/LTSN LOM application profile, Version 1.0
An RDN/LTSN metadata application profile for use within RDN/LTSN partnership activities, based on the IEEE LOM and compliant with the UK LOM Core.

Metadata Schema Registries


ISO/IEC 11179, Information Technology -- Metadata Registries (MDR)
Specifies basic attributes of the kind and quality of metadata necessary to describe other data, and it specifies the management and administration of that metadata in a metadata registry.

Baker, T., Blanchi, C. et al. Principles of Metadata Registries. White Paper of DELOS Registries Working Group (2003)
An attempt by researchers from different backgrounds and perspectives on the metadata world to articulate a shared set of principles underlying the construction of metadata registries.

Rachel Heery, Pete Johnston, Dave Beckett and Damian Steer. "The MEG Registry and SCART: complementary tools for creation, discovery and re-use of metadata schemas". Proceedings of the International Conference on Dublin Core and Metadata for e-Communities 2002, pp 63-69
An account of the schema creation tool developed as part of the MEG Registry project.

Rachel Heery, Pete Johnston, Csaba Fülöp and András Micsik. "Metadata schema registries in the partially Semantic Web: the CORES experience". Proceedings of the 2003 Dublin Core Conference: Supporting Communities of Discourse and Practice - Metadata Research and Applications, Seattle, Wa., USA, 28 September - 2 October 2003
Reflections on the experiences of implementing the CORES metadata schema registry.


SchemaWeb Registry
SchemaWeb is a repository for RDF schemas expressed in the RDFS, OWL and DAML+OIL schema languages. SchemaWeb gathers information about schemas published on the web, and merges the RDF statements from all the schemas registered in the directory into an RDF triples store. SchemaWeb provides browse/search interfaces for human users, and REST and SOAP query interfaces for applications.

DCMI Registry
The Dublin Core Metadata Initiative's Metadata Registry is an application designed to provide users and applications an authoritative source of information about the Dublin Core element set and related vocabularies.

Metadata for Education Group (MEG) Registry

CORES Registry

SCHEMAS Registry

DESIRE Registry