The Review Group commissioned a survey of aspects of provision across the sector which was conducted by the Library and Information Statistics Unit (LISU) based at Loughborough University. This survey was aimed at obtaining information, both quantitative and qualitative, about a range of issues, particularly to supplement data not covered in SCONUL and COPOL statistics. It covered in particular the availability of space, the effects of cost increases, changes in teaching and research methods and organisation, and developments in information delivery techniques. It also explored how far resources and activities can sensibly be categorised as being in support of teaching or research In general the survey has been valuable and it has provided robust information in many areas; the results of the survey have, where appropriate, been used in preparing this report. In using the information obtained from the survey full account has been taken of any shortcomings which may have arisen because of the constraints (especially time) under which the survey was designed and completed. LISU will be publishing separately a report and analysis of the findings of the survey.
A study was commissioned from the John Fielden Consultancy to investigate the staffing aspects of library management, bearing in mind that library staff at all levels are critical in ensuring the effective support of teaching and learning, scholarship and research.
The consultants examined current changes affecting staffing and the organisation of learning support services, drawing on material collected through the LISU survey, and considered likely future models of service bearing in mind experience in the USA and Australia as well as in the UK. They reviewed the staffing implications of current developments and likely future trends, and made a series of detailed recommendations. Their Report, entitled "Supporting Expansion", is being published separately.
A substantial volume of papers was produced as part of the work of the Information Technology sub-group. Because of their nature, and the advantages of early release, these have already been published through the UK Office for Library Networking, (Libraries and IT: Working Papers of the Information Sub-Committee of the HEFC's Libraries Review, UKOLN, University of Bath 1993). The Review Group hopes that these will be of interest to those wishing to obtain more details on the background to the IT related recommendations in this Report, and that they will represent a useful summary of the current state of development in the field.
To illustrate the diversity and scale of library provision in higher education we offer the following sketches of four libraries.
This university is mainly geared for teaching but has growing research activity. It has 11,000 students and is located on two sites in a city and county town which are 18 miles apart. There are many links with local book shops and with local business and industry, which are heavy users of the Library and Information Service.
The Librarian is a member of the Academic Board and its Planning Committee and is also a member of the Senior Management Team of the university and chairs the county-wide LIP Executive Board.
The three site libraries, which are each open for 64 hours per week during term time, are serviced by 80 staff, 24 of whom are in professional posts. The libraries have a combined book stock of 310,000 and hold 2,200 journal titles. There are 1,118 reader spaces, 1,258 square metres of shelving and 6,217 square metres of floor space. The 13,000 registered users make 700,000 visits per annum (3000 per day) to the three libraries. 180 IT workspaces enable widespread access to the computer network and 44 CD-ROM databases.
The total budget of the library service is 2.2 million of which 1 million is accounted for by staff costs. 630,000 is spent on books and 20,000 on staff development. The capital budget amounts to 90,000.
Library provision is being enhanced by the creation of a law library to service the new Law School; the development of the CD-ROM network; the replacement of the eight year old Geac systems with a new library management system and the continued growth in use of electronic media.
This university is located about a mile from the centre of a large city. It has approximately 12,500 undergraduates, 2,500 postgraduates and 1,130 academic staff. Nearly every major academic discipline is represented within the institution.
The Librarian, who is advised by a Joint Library Committee of Senate and Council, is ex officio member of Senate, of the Academic Resources Committee and of the principal Computing Policy Committee. Subject specialists on the Library staff are members of every faculty board and their appropriate sub-committees. A five-year rolling strategic plan was completed in 1992, and its principles are incorporated in the University's strategic plan.
The Library comprises two major buildings, a number of faculty and departmental libraries and three book stores. There are substantial holdings of rare books and special collections. There is almost 100 kilometres of shelving and a total usable area of 26,700 square metres. The library is part of a consortium of academic libraries in the city.
36,000 registered readers are serviced by 34 academic-related staff and 114 other staff. The Main Library has 2,000 reader seats and is open during term time for 66.5 hours per week with full services and for a further 15 hours for reading purposes only. Holdings include over 3,500,000 books and over one million manuscript and archival items. Around 7,000 current journals are received, and 40 CD-ROMs are networked.
In 1992-93 the total recurrent income of the library from all sources was approximately 5 million. This includes expenditure on staff of 2.4 million; on periodicals, abstracts and indexes, 971,000; on monographs and reference works, 753,000; and on operating costs, 490,000.
Established in the mid 1960s this university is situated on a campus five miles outside a provincial city. It has around 6,400 undergraduates, 1,400 postgraduates, and 1000 academic staff. It is active in both teaching and research across a wide range of subjects. The Librarian reports directly to the Vice-Chancellor. He is also accountable ibrary Committee (chaired by a Pro-Vice Chancellor).
The library, which is open for 78.5 hours a week in term time, serves a constituency of 19,000 registered readers, whose numbers are growing at a rate of eight per cent per annum - annual turnstile admissions to the main site exceed one million a year. It has 13,840 square metres of floor space, 1,400 reader spaces and 127 IT spaces. There are 91 staff of whom 33.5 are on professional grades. Book stock amounts to 500,000 and there are over 3,700 current journals. Stock is added at a net rate of 700 metres of printed materials (about 25,000 volumes) and 200 metres of archives each year. Most of the library's operations are supported by an integrated minicomputer-based system supplied by BLCMP. The on-line catalogue, a major CD-ROM facility comprising 50 databases, and other information services are networked within the library and across the campus LAN.
The budget for 1993-94 is 2.9 million, including non-recurrent funds. Of this 1.4 million is earmarked for the purchase of materials (including 700,000 on periodicals), information systems and binding services.
The college, an Anglican foundation, was established over 150 years ago and is located on one site close to the centre of a provincial city. In recent years the college has broadened its work from its original base in teacher training, diversifying particularly into the arts and humanities and areas of professional training including nursing. Presently around 3,700 students are enrolled on full- and part-time courses.
The Learning Resources Centre is housed in a set of inter-connected buildings. As well as fulfilling the traditional role of an academic library the centre services course planning and organisation, teaching and consultancy in learning resources, and also runs video production unit of near-broadcast standard. All operations connected with issues and returns, cataloguing and classification, and acquisitions are now fully automated. The college has pioneered the use of BLCMP's circulation and cataloguing systems with audio-visual equipment and other non-book materials.
The Librarian manages the acquisition, cataloguing and circulation of the various learning resources held centrally by the college Learning Resources Centre and reports to the Co-ordinator of Learning Resources who is ex-officio a member of the Academic Board. The Library is open for 65 hours a week in term time, has over 2,700 metres of shelving, 1,600 square metres of floor area, 239 reader spaces, 15 IT spaces and two CD-ROM databases. There are 21.2 library staff (six in professional grades) serving around 4,300 users. 130,000 volumes of books and 571 current journals are held. The number of loans is over 80,000 a year.
Total annual expenditure amounts to 421,000 of which 291,000 is accounted for by staff salaries. 100,000 is spent on books and 30,000 on periodicals.
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